In 1905, Boston was a rapidly growing industrial city with a population of over 560,000 people. It was a major center for manufacturing, with industries such as shoe production, textiles, and metalworking playing a significant role in the city's economy. The city also had a large immigrant population, with many Irish, Italian, and Eastern European immigrants living in Boston's neighborhoods. It was a major center for higher education, with universities such as Harvard, MIT, and Boston University located in the area. Additionally, in 1905 Boston was a transportation hub for the Northeast with a busy port and multiple train and trolley lines.